Wednesday, July 7, 2010

Vocabulary Development -- Greek Stems

Greek Stem MEANING Examples of English words built from the stem
aero AIR aerial aerobics aeronautics aerodynamics
arch CHIEF archenemy archbishop monarch oligarchy
astro/aster STAR astronaut astronomy disaster asterisk
bio LIFE biology biography biopsy biochemist
crat RULE democrat autocrat aristocrat bureaucrat
chron TIME chronicle chronometer chronic chronological
cycl CIRCLE cycle bicycle cyclone encyclopedia
dem PEOPLE democracy demographics epidemic demagogue
gen RACE generate genocide progeny genealogy
geo EARTH geography geology geometry geophysical
gon ANGLE pentagon hexagon octagon diagonal
gram WRITTEN diagram grammar epigram telegram
graph WRITE autograph telegraph photograph graphic
hydr WATER hydroelectric hydrogen hydrant dehydrated
log WORD prologue epilogue monologue dialogue
mech MACHINE mechanic mechanize mechanism mechanical
meter MEASURING DEVICE thermometer barometer odometer glucometer
nym NAME homonym synonym acronym pseudonym
opt EYE optical optometerist optic optician
path FEELING sympathy empathy pathos pathetic
phobia FEAR xenophobia agoraphobia aquaphobia aerophobia
phon SOUND telephone phonics symphony saxophone
photo LIGHT telephoto photograph photography photosynthesis
poli CITY metropolis police political cosmopolitan
phys NATURE physical physique physician physicist
psych MIND psyche psychology psychiatrist psychopath
scop SEE microscope telescope periscope stethoscope
soph WISE philosopher sophomore sophisticated sophist
therm HEAT thermal thermometer thermostat thermos

Vocabulary -- Latin Stems

Latin Stem MEANING Examples of English words built from this stem
act DO act action react actor
aud HEAR audible auditory audience audition
agri FIELD agriculture agronomist agrarian agronomy
amo/ami LOVE amiable amity amatory amateur
annu/enni YEAR annual annually biennial centennial
aqua WATER aqueduct aquatic aqueous aquamarine
cap(it) HEAD/LIFE cap captain capital decapitate
cede/ceed GO precede recede succeed antecede
dent TOOTH dental dentist dentifice trident
dict SPEAK dictate predict contradict dictionary
duc(t) LEAD educate duct conduct aqueduct
fac MAKE/DO factory manufacture benefactor facsimile
fer BRING transfer confer refer defer
flex/flect BEND flexible reflex reflect deflect
form SHAPE form uniform formation transform
grat PLEASE gratitude grateful congratulate gratify
ject THROW inject projectile reject eject
jud/jus LAW judge judicial prejudice just
liber FREE liberty liberate liberal libertine
loc PLACE locate location allocate dislocate
lum LIGHT illumine luminary luminescent luminous
man HAND manual manufacture manuscript manipulate
mand ORDER command demand remand mandate
mar SEA maritime Marine submarine mariner
mem MINDFUL memory remember memento memorandum
min SMALL minimum minute minus minor
mit/miss SEND missile mission transmit dismiss
mob MOVE mobile automobile mobility immobile
mort DEATH mortal mortician mortality post mortem
mot/mov MOVE motor motion move motive
multi MANY mutiply multitude multiple multiplicity
nat BORN natal native nationality innate
nov NEW novice novel novelty innovate
opt BEST optimal optimist optimize optimum
ped/pod FOOT pedal pedestrian podium pedestal
pel/puls DRIVE repel expel compulsion propulsion
pens/pend HANG suspend pendulum appendix suspense
port CARRY portable porter transport deport
rect STRAIGHT erect rectangle correct direction
rupt BREAK rupture interrupt erupt abrupt
sci KNOW science conscience conscious scientific
sect CUT dissect bisect section sector
sens FEEL sense sensation sensible sensory
sign MARK sign signature signal insignia
son SOUND sonar unison sonorous sonnet
spir BREATHE respiration inspire conspire spirit
spec SEE/LOOK inspect spectacles suspect spectator
sta STAND stationary statue stabile stagnant
struct BUILD construct destructive instruct structure
temp TIME tempo temporary temporal contemporary
ten HOLD tenure tenacious tenant retentive
terr LAND territory terrain terrace terrestrial
tex WEAVE texture context text textile
tract PULL tractor subtract attract retract
trud/trus PUSH intrude protrude obtrusive abstrusive
turb CONFUSION disturb perturb turbine turbulent
urb CITY urban suburb suburban urbane
vac EMPTY vacant vacate vacation vacuum
var DIFFERENT vary various variant variety
vict/vinc CONQUER victory victim convince invincible
vid/vis SEE video television visit evidence
vit/viv LIVE survive vital vitamin revive
void EMPTY void devoid avoid avoidance
vol WISH volunteer volition benevolent malevolent
volv ROLL revolve revolution involve evolve
vor EAT carnivore herbivore omnivore voracious
I was just working with a dedicated group of educators (they gave up some of their first days of summer vacation to come together to work on improving their students' learning!). We focused on vocabulary development for underachieving students. We examined the research that has shown how one of the best predictors of reading achievement beyond the earliest stages of learning to read is oral language. We spent time examining how Latin and Greek stems make up a large percentage of English words. We also focused on activities to help students internalize the meanings of common Latin and Greek stems. I promised that I would post a listing of some of the most commonly used Latin and Greek stems in the English language -- so they will both be coming today!